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zhangwl, há 5 anos

Introduction: Energy Savings Tracking Methods After installing energy conservation measures (ECMs) nike air max 2014 damen , Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) often determine the energy savings resulting from the project and present the savings results to their customers. A common way to calculate energy savings is to measure the flows of energy associated with the ECM, and then to apply spreadsheet calculations to determine savings. For example, a chiller retrofit would might require measurements of chilled water supply and return temperatures and kW. The benefit of this approach is that the ECM is isolated, and that only energy flows associated with the ECM itself are considered. This method is described as Option A or Option B in the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). Table 1 presents the different options. Option A requires some measurement and allows for estimations of some parameters. Option B requires measurement of all parameters. In both options, calculations are done (typically in spreadsheets) to determine what energy savings. Option C uses utility bills to determine energy savings. Some ESCOs Have Limited Options There are many situations where Option A or Option B (Metering and Calculating) is the best approach to measuring energy savings, however nike air max 2014 günstig , some ESCOs insist upon only using Option A or Option B, when clearly Option C would be most appropriate. If the ESCO was a lighting contractor, then Option A should work in all cases. Spot measurements of fixtures before and after, agreed upon hours of operation, and simple calculations can be inserted into a spreadsheet that can calculate savings. The same spreadsheet can be used over and over. However, for ESCOs that offer a variety of different retrofits nike air max 2013 damen , it is necessary to be able to employ all options so that the best option can be selected for each individual job. Controls Retrofits, or retrofits to HVAC systems are typically excellent candidates for Option C. However there are drawbacks with metering and calculating savings and these can include: Greater expense Difficulties convincing the customer of the appropriateness and veracity of the method and savings numbers Inability to handle interactive or many difficult ECMs. ESCOs that do not have the capacity to employ all options are at a disadvantage over those ESCOs that can employ them all. Specifically, we want to address those ESCOs that only employ Option A and Option B. These ESCOs may encounter the following problems due to their limited offerings: Measurement and Verification costs can be greater, which lead to higher project costs, which can limit the energy projects that the ESCO can sell. The lack of Measurement and Verification options overall can make the ESCO less competitive, and hurt the financial performance of the ESCO. Using Options A or B sometimes require the customer to understand and approve of complex energy calculations. These options are often difficult to explain to customers who insist upon seeing savings in their utility bills. Customer satisfaction can suffer if Option C is not made available to customers who want to see savings on their bills. Options A and B cannot handle difficult ECMs. The methods used to determine savings are inaccurate nike air max 2013 kaufen , and make large assumptions that cannot be borne out if a third party consultant is hired to oversee the savings determination process. These issues are discussed in more detail below. Cost of Utility Bill Analysis vs. Metering and Calculating Measurement and Verification should cost between 1 and 15 of the project cost. Metering and calculating savings often has costs associated with labor and equipment. As many project configurations are different, projects typically require unique configurations of sensors, placements of sensors and savings calculations. On more complicated ECMs, only highly skilled energy professionals can determine which measurement devices should be applied, and to what components. Manipulating data, and finally creating spreadsheets with engineering calculations also requires skilled personnel who command high wages. Metering equipment also has a cost nike air max 95 kaufen , and for many projects, metering equipment, or control points, have to be purchased, and remain on the job for years. Of course, there are cases where metering and calculating is the least expensive and the most desirable method. If an ESCO only provides a lighting retrofit nike air max 2015 damen günstig , then measuring a selection of lighting fixtures before and after the retrofit, and producing a spreadsheet that determines savings is the best option. On the other hand, utility bill analysis is inexpensive. With specialized utility bill analysis software, clerical workers can create the Measurement and Verification analysis. Bills are entered, weather imported, a linear regression performed nike air max 2015 herren günstig , and reports made. Capital need not be sunk into metering equipment or control points or into long hours of analysis and data manipulation. Typically for utility bill analysis, measurement and verification costs are a fraction of what costs for retrofit isolation savings are ranging between 1 and 5 of project costs. Explaining Savings Numbers to Customers Customers understand utility bills. The reason they entered into an energy savings contract is often triggered by the desire to lower their energy bills. Retrofit Isolation methods do not address the customer s utility bill. A project may be saving energy, but the utility bill may actually be increasing. Retrofit Isolation does not address this at all. ESCOs need to be responsive to customer s needs, and this is done through communicating in a manner that the customer s understand. They want to see the savings on their utility bills this is a method they would trust. In addition, customers are sometimes mistrustful of energy service companies that provide savings numbers that the customer cannot understand.

zakbowden5372, há 3 anos

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volskygge, há 1 ano

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volskygge, há 11 mêses
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